Animations in multimedia


It is defined as the act of making something come alive. It is concerned with visual aspect of the project. Animation is an object moving across or into or out of the screen. It is possible because of a biological phenomenon known as persuation of vision ans a psychological phenomenon called Phi (optical illusion). In animation a series of images are rapidly changed to create as illusion of movement. Animation is a special effect that creates illusion of movement within successive images. Animation is created by recording a series of still images of drawing, object, peoples etc. in various positions of incremental movements. It may not be necessary to move the object to create the illusion of movement. Colors and the background can be changed from frame to frame so that there is a perception of moving object.

Usage of animation 

1. Artistic purpose.
2. Story telling.
3. Displaying data (scientific visualization).
4. Instructional purposes.

Types of animation

Basic principals of animations


It is the essence of animation. the speed at which something moves gives the sense
Of what the object is the weight of an object and why it is moving. Something like an eye blink or cycling can be fast or slow.
If it’s fast a character will see alert and awake. If it is slow the character is tired.
The basics are: more drawing between poses slow and smooth the action fewer drawings make the action faster and crisper.

Secondary action

It results from the main action. It creates interest and realism in animation . It enriches the main action it should be stayed such that it should be noticed but still not over power the main action,

Straight ahead action and pose to pose action.

Straight ahead action

It starts at the first drawing and works drawing to drawing to the end of the scene . We can lose size volume and proportions with his method. but it does have freshness. Fast wild action scenes they are done this way

Pose to pose action

It is more planed out and is created by drawing or setting up key poses and the drawing or creating in between images .

Fallow through and overlapping action

When the main body of the character stops , all other parts will continue to catch up to the main mass of the character , such as long hair , arms. Nothing stops all at once. Follow through is usually animated as something goes fast its resting point and then coming back to where it could normally be.  e.g.  in throwing a ball you put your hand back that is anticipation, it is the preparation for throwing action itself. Then you throw the arm forward for the main action. Follow throw is then the arm continuing past the normal stopping point. Overlapping action is an action that becomes occurs because of another action like if a dog is running and suddenly comes to a stop , its ears will probably still keep moving for a  bit . Overlap contributes to the continuity of the scene


a pose or action should clearly communicate to the audience about the attitude reaction or idea of the character as it relates to the story and continuity of the story line. Staging means to arrange things in each frame so that action is clear and easy to see. At a given moment a scene has only a few main characters , stagingmeans to give those characters emphasis and to integrate them with the background.


All the characters in an animation should have appeal .it means anything that a person likes to see. It could be quality of charm, design simplicity or communication. Appeal can be gained by correctly utilized other principles. Ease in and out has to do with gradually causing an object to accelerate or come to rest from a pose ease In and Out is also known as Slow In and Out .it softens the actions making it more real like. e.g. (bouncing ball).


All actions with few acceptations follow an arc or slightly circular path .when creating animation one should try to have motion follow curved paths rather than linear ones. When a hand or arm reaches out to reaches something it tends to move in an kicking a ball. Arcs give animation a more natural action and better flow.


Action in animation usually occurs in three sections – the setup for the motion, the actual action and then follows through of the action. The first part is known as anticipation. Anticipation prepares the audience for a major action the character is about to perform such as starting to run jump or change expression. e.g.  before you throw a ball you must swing your arm backwards , the backwards motion is the anticipation .

Squash and stretch

it is the way for deforming the object such that it shows how rigid the object is for example if rubber ball bounces or hit the ground it will tend to flatten when it hits this is the squash principle. As it starts to bounce up it will stretch in the direction it is going.
and revert back to the original shape.


it is used to accent/emphasize and action . it should be used in a careful and balanced manner . Exaggerating the important elements makes them stand out and brings them closer to the viewer. the result will that the animation will be seen more realistic and entertainment.

Solid drawing

The basic principles of animation form , weight , volume , solidity and the illusion of three dimension apply to animations as it does to academic drawing . these drawings are transformed into color and movement giving the characters the illusion three dimensional life.


it determines the success of an animation .The idea is that the animated creature really becomes live and enters the two characters of the role . No two characters would act the same . it is important to make the personality of two characters different.

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